PH: Philosophy which is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, existence and reality of a particular context or subject from various ways. The Indian philosophy has been classified into six schools therefore it’s called six systems of philosophy. Each system of Indian philosophy is called a Darshana. Thus the Sanskrit word ‘Shad-Darshana’ refers to ‘the six systems of philosophy’ which are Nyaya, Vasiseshika, Sankhya, Yoga, Purva Mimamsa and Uttara Mimamsa. Each of these systems differs in one way or the other in terms of its concepts, phenomena, laws and dogmas. Each system has it’s own founder as well. It is important to know that the founders of these systems of philosophy are sages of the highest order that have devoted their lives for the study and propagation of philosophy.
Yoga and Samskhya are allied systems. The Yoga system of philosophy was founded by the great sage Patanjali. Yoga philosophy was known even in the Vedic and pre-Vedic periods, it was not formally systematized until it was codified by Patanjali in about 200 BC. He authored the Yoga Sutras or the aphorisms of Yoga which contains 196 aphorisms which are divided into four chapters. The date is not clearly known but his work is of great value to the seekers of the state of spiritual absorption. Yoga aims at the final state of spiritual absorption through eight component parts, together called Ashtanga Yoga. The eight limbs of Yoga according to Patanjali are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. All the eight are jointly called Raja Yoga. Yama aims at internal purification, Niyama aims at external purity, Asana consists in the performance of the postures of Yoga, Pranayama is breath control, Pratyahara results from the withdrawal of sense organs from the corresponding sense objects, Dharana is concentration, Dhyana is meditation and Samadhi is the final state of spiritual absorption.
The Yoga system of philosophy accepts three fundamental realities, namely, Ishwara, Purusha and Prakriti or the primordial matter. Patanjali says that scriptures are the sources of the existence of Ishwara. Ishwara is omniscient and is free from the qualities inherent in Prakriti. Patanjali defines Yoga as ‘Chittavriitinirodha’. Yoga is the restraint of the mental operations. Patanjali names some obstacles to the path of Yoga. They are called ‘Antarayas’ and they include Vyadhi (illness), styana (apathy), Samsaya (doubt), Pramada (inadvertence), Alasya (laziness), Avirati (incontinence), Bhrantidarshana (wrong understanding), Alabdha Bhumikatva (non-attainment of mental plane) and Anavasthitatva (instability). In addition to the obstacles mentioned above, Patanjali accepts five more obstacles called Dukha (pain), Daurmanasya (frustration, Angamejayatva (fickle limbs), Svasa (spasmodic breathing in) and Prasvasa (spasmodic breathing out). Patanjali speaks about Jatyantara Parinama or the phenomenon of the evolution of one species or genus into another species or genus.
Through over all view of philosophy, we can emphasize that yoga is a process of harmonizing body and mind by the dint of several discrimination yogic philosophical thought, for that reason people once he
comes to know that the core meaning of life and way of living than he can lead his life most consecration way only that can bring the transcendental joy or Mokhsa.